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Dimensions Of Quality

David Garvin


In 1987 David Garvin suggested that there are eight dimensions to quality. Lets briefly look at each of Garvin's eight dimensions.

The diagram below lists the eight dimensions of quality proposed by Garvin

Dimensions of Quality Diagram

Dimension 1: Performance

A quality product will perform as expected by the user and as specified by the manufacturer. If products do not do as buyers expect, users will be disappointed and frustrated. Worse still poor performing products get negative reviews and lose sales and reputation.

Dimension 2: Features

What additional benefits will be added to the product? Will they be they tangible or non-tangible benefits. For example this could be after sales service, or guarantees. Some features will be present in all products but other features will only be found in "quality" products. For example all cars have wheels, steering wheel, gears, windows and seats but only some cars have heated seats, assisted parking and bluetooth.

Dimension 3: Reliability

Is the product consistent? Will it perform well over its expected lifetime and perform consistently? Many brands have developed trust with customers because of their reputation for reliability.

Dimension 4: Durability

How durable is your product. Will it last with daily use?

Dimension 5: Conformance

Does your product meet with any agreed internal and national specifications? For example safety regulations and laws.

Dimension 6: Serviceability

Is the product easy to service? Does the organisation offer enough service support?

Dimension 7: Aesthetics

Is the product appealing to the eye? Design is important for many products; the colour picked indicates certain things.

Dimension 8: Perceived Quality

What sort of quality perception does the marketing team want to convey in their marketing message? Will the price charged reflect the quality of the product? What brand name is going to be used and does this convey any perception of quality?


To summarise quality is a broad topic and covers many factors. An organisation has to build in all of the above factors when building quality into their product or service.


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